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Genetic and Regulatory Architecture of Alzheimer's Disease in the APOE Region


Kulminski, A.M., Shu, L., Loika, Y., Nazarian, A., Arbeev, K.G., Ukraintseva, S., Yashin, A. I., Culminskaya, I.


Alzheimer's & Dementia




Introduction: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) e2 and e4 alleles encoded by rs7412 and rs429358 polymorphisms, respectively, are landmark contra and pro "risk" factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: We examined differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD) structures between (1) AD-affected and unaffected subjects and (2) older AD-unaffected and younger subjects in the 19q13.3 region harboring rs7412 and rs429358.

Results: AD is associated with sex-nonspecific heterogeneous patterns of decreased and increased LD of rs7412 and rs429358, respectively, with other polymorphisms from five genes in this region in AD-affected subjects. The LD patterns in older AD-unaffected subjects resembled those in younger individuals. Polarization of the e4- and e2 allele-related heterogeneous LD clusters differentiated cell types and implicated specific tissues in AD pathogenesis.

Discussion: Protection and predisposition to AD is characterized by an interplay of rs7412 and rs429358, with multiple polymorphisms in the 19q13.3 region in a tissue-specific manner, which is not driven by common evolutionary forces.

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